The LGBT Health & Development Program

Tag: publication


A Snapshot of LGBT Youth in Chicago

Posted by Antonia in Researchers, Youth. No Comments

11th July

At Pride Weekend 2012 we unveiled some of our findings about LGBT Youth in Chicago. Learn more, and download the colorful pdf here!



Video: Suicidal Ideation and Self-Harm in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth

14th February

WHAT SHIELDS GAY YOUTH FROM SUICIDE?
Love from family and friends offer most protection, while bullying causes highest risk.



A genomewide scan of male sexual orientation.

3rd February

Abstract
This is the first report of a full genome scan of sexual orientation in men. A sample of 456 individuals from 146 families with two or more gay brothers was genotyped with 403 microsatellite markers at 10-cM intervals. Given that previously reported evidence of maternal loading of transmission of sexual orientation could indicate epigenetic factors acting on autosomal genes, maximum likelihood estimations (mlod) scores were calculated separated for maternal, paternal, and combined transmission. The highest mlod score was 3.45 at a position near D7S798 in 7q36 with approximately equivalent maternal and paternal contributions. The second highest mlod score of 1.96 was located near D8S505 in 8p12, again with equal maternal and paternal contributions. A maternal origin effect was found near marker D10S217 in 10q26, with a mlod score of 1.81 for maternal meioses and no paternal contribution. We … Read More »



Genetic and environmental influences on pubertal development: Longitudinal data from Finnish twins at ages 11 and 14

3rd February

Abstract
To study sources of individual differences in pubertal development, the authors fit a sex-limitation common factor model to data reported, at ages 11 and 14 years, by 1,891 twin pairs on items that comprise the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS; A. C. Petersen, L. Crockett, M. Richards, & A. Boxer, 1988). The model divides variation into a general pubertal factor and item-specific variation and, in addition, decomposes it into constituent sources. In both boys and girls, genetic influences made the largest contribution to variance common to PDS items. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variation specific to PDS items in boys, whereas for girls, common environmental influences were added for growth spurt and menarcheal status. For both common and item-specific variation, genetic effects were partially sex specific. Subsidiary analyses found accelerated maturation in both boys and girls who … Read More »



A candidate gene study of CYP19 (aromatase) and male sexual orientation.

3rd February

Abstract
Aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19), which is necessary for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, plays an important role in the sexual differentiation of the brain. To investigate whether differences in the gene encoding the aromatase enzyme influence sexual orientation in men, we conducted linkage, association, and expression analyses in a large sample of homosexual brothers using microsatellite markers in and around CYP19. No linkage was detected, and a gene-specific relative risk of 1.5-fold could be excluded at a lod score of -2. Results of the TDT demonstrated no preferential transmission of any of the CYP19 alleles in this sample. Expression of aromatase mRNA by microarray analysis was not significantly different between heterosexual and homosexual men. These results suggest that variation in the gene for this subunit of the aromatase enzyme complex is not likely to be a major factor in … Read More »



Genetic influences on the association between personality risk factors and alcohol use and abuse

3rd February

Abstract
The authors assessed the association of 2 personality dimensions with use and abuse of alcohol in 1,320 twin pairs concordantly reporting nonabstinence at age 18.5 years. The 2 alcohol outcomes differentially relate to the 2 personality dimensions: Alcohol-related problems correlate more highly with social deviance than with excitement seeking (ES), and alcohol consumption correlates more highly with ES than with social deviance. Biometric models fit to the data identified similar patterns in genetic covariance, although differences were more evident in genetic correlations between social deviance and alcohol outcomes than in those for ES. Results suggest that genetic influences underlie the association of personality with alcohol use and subsequent problems and illustrate the utility of informative twin analyses in exploring links between genes, personality, and behavior disorder.

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Mustanski, B., Viken, R.J., Kaprio J., Rose, R.J. (2003). Genetic influences on the … Read More »



A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation

3rd February

Abstract
This article provides a comprehensive review and critique of biological research on sexual orientation published over the last decade. We cover research investigating (a) the neurohormonal theory of sexual orientation (psychoneuroendocrinology, prenatal stress, cerebral asymmetry, neuroanatomy, otoacoustic emissions, anthropometrics), (b) genetic influences, (c) fraternal birth-order effects, and (d) a putative role for developmental instability. Despite inconsistent results across both studies and traits, some support for the neurohormonal theory is garnered, but mostly in men. Genetic research using family and twin methodologies has produced consistent evidence that genes influence sexual orientation, but molecular research has not yet produced compelling evidence for specific genes. Although it has been well established that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, the route by which this occurs has not been resolved. We conclude with an examination of the limitations of biological … Read More »






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